MONOGRAPHS, as author’s or collective works, present the results of the research searches of the teaching staff of NVNA Naval Academy. Purposeful and in-depth research on certain issues, they reveal the specifics of interests, scientific and creative provocations and approaches, original and often unexpected decisions of the authors. They are an indicator of the difficult tasks that require dedication and attention, the implementation of which contributes to the enrichment not only of the scientific and theoretical apparatus, but also helps to achieve applied and practical discoveries and experience.
The monographs are duly discussed by the scientific community of NVNA Naval Academy, as well as by recognized, respected specialists from other institutions working in the respective fields. Consulted and in line with the latest achievements on the issues discussed, the works are a measure of scientific precision, responsibility, rigor, necessary for a serious and self-respecting researcher.
The monographs must be presented through the sight of scientific reviewers and / or scientific editors. They have ISBN, and their bibliographic references are in accordance with the latest standard of citation – ISO 690: 2021. The publishers behind the specific scientific works are a testament to the prestige of the monographs.
Definition: Published scientific publication that contains a complete and comprehensive study of a particular subject or problem, written by one or more authors. A monograph is a scientific work that does not repeat or summarize existing knowledge, has a scientific editor and / or scientific reviewers, has an ISBN and is at least 100 standard pages, with 1800 characters per page.
HRISTOV, D. Operational features and safe practices on marine vessels using liquefied natural gas as fuel. Varna: Steno, 2022. ISBN 978-619-241-225-8.
Abstract: In the transition of the shipping industry to low-carbon fuels, the main means of the reduction of emissions is the application of natural gas as a fuel. The specifics of receiving, strong and preparing for combustion of the natural gas are unknown to most marine professionals and this is a serious safety problem when changing over to the first line of defense when working with natural gas systems. The level of the marine officers knowledge must meet the required high requirements for accurate, adequate and on time actions in the management of gas processes.
The Monograph presents the features of reception, storage, fuel preparation, automation of processes and safety systems operation, when working with natural gas. The specifics of working with liquefied natural gas are analyzed and good practices are underlined when performing typical activities with natural gas on board the shup. There are presented authors experiment results with natural gas systems in a simulation environment.
Keywords: Liquefied natural gas, Ship systems, Liquefied natural gas bunkering, Operation of natural gas engines Liquefied natural gas safe practices.
- Associate Prof. Dr. Eng. Ivaylo Dankov Bakalov, Nikola Vaptsarov Naval Academy
- Associate Prof. Dr. Eng. Ivan Enchev Ivanov, Nikola Vaptsarov Naval Academy
- Associate Prof. Dr. Eng. Rumen Zhechev Stoyanov, Nikola Vaptsarov Naval Academy
- Associate Prof. Dr. Eng. Juliyan Nikolaev Minchev, Nikola Vaptsarov Naval Academy
PETROVA, V. Analytical hierarchical process for assessment and selection of secure software solutions. Varna: Nikola Vaptsarov Naval Academy, 2022. ISBN 978-619-7428-83-4.
Abstract: Software security assessment is fundamental to decision-making when building secure applications. The main thesis of this monograph is the need to develop secure software solutions to ensure the efficient functioning of software systems.
The aim (in the light of theory and decision-making processes) is to highlight the need for approaches and to create new models for evaluation and choice in decision-making, applying them practically to the construction of secure software solutions.
The main tasks for realizing the goal are the following:
- To give a brief overview of decision theory and consider the main elements and principles.
- To reveal the need to implement a decision-making process and its implementation in the assessment and selection of secure software solutions.
- To present the features of multi-criteria tasks for modeling problems related to making secure software decisions.
- To propose an approach for assessing and selecting solutions through an analytical hierarchical process for determining secure software solutions.
- To develop and implement a method for measuring the disparity of the pairwise comparison matrix with fuzzy elements.
- To propose an analytical hierarchical process with fuzzy sets for ranking risk factors in the development of software systems.
- To determine the structure, program code, logical components, construction and use of secure software solutions.
The comparative, systematic and complex approach, methods of statistical analysis and analytical hierarchical process for multi-criteria decision-making with fuzzy logic, modeling and design of secure software solutions, algorithmization and risk analysis are applied in the research.
The monograph presents a hierarchical model for achieving confidentiality, integrity and availability of security systems. It offers approaches and tools for the development of secure software solutions.
An information security metric for software systems is provided, which is of particular importance for protecting and preventing vulnerabilities and attacks.
The results of this study provide readers with some suggestions on how to design secure software systems and perform cost-benefit analysis.
Keywords: AHP; multi-criteria analysis; secure software solutions; fuzzy logic.
- Prof. D. Sc. Andon Dimitrov Lazarov, Nikola Vaptsarov Naval Academy
- Prof. D. Sc. Raicho Todorov Ilarionov, Technical university – Gabrovo
LYUTSKANOV, K. Manufacturing And Reconditioning Of Two-Stroke And Four-Stroke Ship Engines Details. Varna: Nikola Vaptsarov Naval Academy, 2022. ISBN 978-619-7428-76-6.
Abstract: The work considered the various possibilities of manufacturing and reconditioning of ship engines details. The most common used materials for manufacturing of details for ship engines are also discussed.
The chemico-thermal treatment and superfinish mechanical operations used in shipbuilding industry and ship repair, are considered in the course of the exhibition as part of wear resistance of details.
The purpose of this development is to increase the quality of specialized training of students and to continue work on further development of research of new technologies for manufacturing and reconditioning of details of ship engines.
Keywords: ship repair, welding, surface welding, reconditioning, manufacturing
- Associate Professor Dr. Yulian Vasilev Moskov, Nikola Vaptsarov Naval Academy
- Cdr. Assoc. Prof. Dr. Momchil Galinov Manov, Nikola Vaptsarov Naval Academy
TSONEV, Y. Computer Network Technologies – Issues and Challenges. Varna: Nikola Vaptsarov Naval Academy, 2022. ISBN 978-619-7428-81-0.
Abstract: This thesis analyses several flaws and vulnerabilities within the area of computer networks and proposes techniques to minimize or fully mitigate their impact. Both physical and virtual lab environments are created in order to assess the operation of network protocols as well as network appliances under the impact of various cyberattacks. Several use and abuse cases are analysed to find opportunities to harden the devices and change their insecure default behaviour. In addition, some cyberattacks are analysed and relevant mitigation techniques are proposed. The current lab tests and analysis are performed in accordance with the TCP/IP model. The thesis focuses on technologies and vulnerabilities as well as techniques, tactics and procedures to launch cyberattacks against the physical, data link, network and transport layers.
Key words: computer network, computer vulnerabilities, cyberattack, cybersecurity, mitigation techniques, TCP/IP model.
- Prof. D. Sc. Andon Lazarov, Nikola Vaptsarov Naval Academy
- Prof. PhD Ivan Tsonev, Konstantin Preslavsky University of Shumen
STEFANOVA, M. Integrating Quality and Risk Management in Logistics. London: IntechOpen, 2022. ISBN 978-1-80356-534-7.
This book focuses on the integration of quality and risk management in logistics. It examines theoretical and practical guidelines and addresses the main risks of non-compliance with the customer and legislative requirements that arise in a constantly changing external environment. Chapters discuss changes in quality and risk management in logistics, research methodologies, and the risks of non-conforming services. The book also includes a Logistics Services Satisfaction Survey. The analyses presented give us a reason to believe that the development of a systematic approach, including both satisfaction analysis and risk factor analysis, may be sufficient grounds for initiating improvements in customer service.
LYUTSKANOV, G. Quality Of The Surface Layer Of The Details After Machining. Varna: Nikola Vaptsarov Naval Academy, 2021. ISBN 978-619-7428-57-5.
Abstract: The quality of the parts and their operational properties are largely determined by the processing technology. The main task for ensuring technological quality of production is solved in the choice of technological process and method of processing. To ensure a certain quality, it is necessary to establish direct links between the operational properties of the parts and the elements of the cutting mode of the main operations of the technological process. Surface quality (micro- and macro- deviations, hardening, micro-hardness, residual stresses, chemical composition, structure, etc.) is formed throughout the processing. The monograph examines the main patterns and phenomena in the processing of materials by cutting, their impact on the accuracy, quality and performance of parts. Used results from the research of the surface layer and different methods and ways of processing; of many authors. The standard methods for assessing the quality of the surface layer are considered. The purpose of this development is to increase the quality of specialized training of students and to continue work on further development of research on the quality of the surface layer – structure, changes in its physicochemical state under operating conditions and its effect on performance; methods for technological maintenance of the surface layer parameters for given working conditions.
Keywords: surface layer, metal cutting, performance properties, quality and accuracy of processing
- Prof. Dr. Eng. Yuri Dachev, Nikola Vaptsarov Naval Academy
- Prof. Dr. Eng. Dimitar Dimitrakiev, Nikola Vaptsarov Naval Academy
Editor and proofreader: Dr. Vanya Koleva
KOZHUHAROV, A. The Bulgarian Maritime Education System Personal Identification Academic Papers (1892–1946). Varna: Nikola Vaptsarov Naval Academy, 2021. ISBN 978-619-7428-55-1.
Abstract: Based on the records of the National Military Historical Museum – Sofia with a branch Naval Museum – Varna, the Naval Academy Museum, the Museum of History of Varna, the Central State Archive – Sofia, the Ministry of Defence Museum, the State Archive – Burgas, the State Archive – Varna, the State Archive – Plovdiv, the State Archive – Ruse, the State Military Historical Archive – Veliko Tarnovo, the Regional Historical Museum – Russe and several private/family collections the monograph presents a historic analysis of the personal identification academic papers issued to those who successfully graduated the course of study of the Maritime Education System between 1892 – 1946. Applying the method of historic typology, overall 45 issues have been established 6 of which related to higher education and 11 samples of maturity certificates. The factors that influenced the change in appearance and content of these documents, the continuity between the different issues of certificates and their value as a source of historical science have also been discussed.
Keywords: Personal Identification Academics Papers, Bulgarian Maritime Education System, 1892 – 1946
- Professor Doctor of Science Ivan Rusev, University of Economics – Varna
- Associate Professor Dr. Marina Pironkova, Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”
Editor and proofreader: Dr. Vanya Koleva
IVANOVA, E. CAD/CAE technologies in engineering graphics in the process of effective design. Varna: STENO, 2021. ISBN 978-619-241-157-2.
Anotation. The knowledge of computer graphics engineering is one of the requirements for university graduates, young professionals, researchers and engineers in production companies. The monograph examines the most popular computer systems in search of suitable software for implementation and application in the educational process, research work of doctoral students and design activity of engineers.
The monograph discusses the basic principles and methods for designing 2D and 3D objects, as well as various simulation studies of these objects with the most popular CAD / CAE systems AutoCAD and Solid Works. The applied research is developed in part by the author or in his teamwork with other engineers, researchers. The design and preparation of computer graphic documents is part of his work with masters at Naval Academy – Varna.
The main purpose of this monograph is to demonstrate and enrich the knowledge of a wide audience of engineers, PhD students and researchers about the application of CAD / CAE systems in solving engineering and research problems.
Keywords: AutoCAD, Solid Works, 2D,3D Drawings, FEM analysis, Solid Works Simulation, Nonlinear Study, Periflex, Flexible Couplings, Buckling, Couplings Design
- Prof. Ivan Balashev
- Prof. Nikolay Tonchev
Stoyanov, V. Empirical psychological research: Quantitative versus qualitative approach. Varna: STENO, 2020, pp. 1-185. ISBN 978-619-241-087-2.
MEDNIKAROV, B. Naval Education in Bulgaria – Current State and Perspectives. Varna: Nikola Vaptsarov Naval Academu, Published by E-litera Soft, 2019. ISBN 978-954-2912-79-8.
Abstract: The purpose of this monograph is to contribute to and enrich the conceptual framework of developing the naval education system in the Republic of Bulgaria in the changing environment. The author’s primary focus is on: research into general theoretical problems of how the naval education system functions; analysis of the environment in which this system functions; generating approaches and directions for the development of the national naval education in the changing environment. This research can be used for the purposes of preparing the management of the military education institutions.
Keywords: naval education system; military education institutions; Nikola Vaptsarov Naval Academy; management of the naval education
- Prof. PhD Daniela Todorova,
- Assoc. Prof. Dr. Sc. Vladimir Velichkov.
Editor: PhD Vania Koleva.
ILIEV, I. Technical description and operation of Coastal radar system for navigation control and protection of the sea garden – SCREEN. Varna: Nikola Vaptsarov Naval Academy, 2019. ISBN 978-954-8991-86-5.
Abstract. The main purpose of the monograph is through systematic analysis to reveal the qualitative change in the work of coastal surveillance, from non-automatic to automatic in terms of building picture compilation of the situation, after commissioning of the system “Ekran”. In parallel, the monograph requires the development of a mathematical model for evaluating the effectivness of the surveillance system (SS) as a technical complex through a statistical method. The monograph contains two sections entitled respectively, the first section “Technical analysis of Coastal radar system for control of navigation and protection of the sea border – “Ekran”and the second section “Operation of Coastal radar system for control of navigation and protection of the sea border – “Ekran”. Section II of the monograph presents a mathematical model for evaluating the effectiveness of a SS. The model links the tactical parameters of the sensor level and the information center of the SS with the information required by it of the system C2. To perform this task, the main tactical parameters of SS and the methods for estimating the maximum detection distance of radar are defined. Criteria for assessment of SS by indicators of probability of target detection and probability of timely target detection have been introduced. The mathematical apparatus has been developed for calculating the indicators on the basis of graphical models of the operation of SS. Through it and the software environment MatLab is implemented software for calculating the integrated detection curve and timely detection curve. To assess the effectiveness of the system, the statistical characteristics of detection and timely detection are built. In conclusion, an algorithm for the construction of SS is presented with a developed program for determining the area of efficiency of the system depending on the operating time of the system and the speed of the target.
Keywords: Surveillance System, System Core, Radar Processor, Radar, AIS, Sensor Unit, Detection Probability
- Prof. Dr. Chavdar Iliev Alexandrov
- Capt. Assoc. Prof. Dr. Nikolai Zhelev Kolev
VELIKOVA, G. Term Formation and Terminological Designation in English and Bulgarian Logistics Terms. Varna: STENO, 2018. ISBN 978-954-449-985-3.
Abstract: The present book is concerned with term formation and terminological designation in the English and Bulgarian terminological systems of logistics. The investigation discusses first semantic patterns of term formation based on metaphorical and metonymical transfer, specialization and extension of the commonly used meaning of words accompanied by the processes of terminologization, determinologization and reterminologization. The morphological method of term formation which is most often represented by affixation and compounding is covered next. Conversion, although rarely met in Bulgarian terminology, is also examined. The syntactic method of forming terminological phrases and their constituents typical of English and Bulgarian terms is analyzed after that. Yet another important source of terminology, related to shortening and its subtypes – univerbisation, abbreviation and clipping – is considered, too. Last but not least, one of the most productive means of term formation – borrowing from foreign languages – is explored in detail, accounting for the majority of terms in Bulgarian, namely types of borrowings, source language and target language translation equivalents, established models of borrowing, whether single terms or terminological phrases, etc. Methods are suggested how to interpret and teach them. The conclusions from the research are substantiated by statistical data.
Key words: logistics terminology, term formation, terminological designation, patterns of term formation
- Prof. Rumyana Balinova Todorova, PhD, Constantine of Preslav University, Shumen
- Assoc. Prof. Sonya Ivanova Toncheva, PhD, N. Vaptsarov Naval Academy, Varna
YOTSOV, I. Conditions for the development of economic corridors in Eurasia Place and role of the Republic of Bulgaria in the implementation of the concept of building economic corridors. Varna: E-Litera Soft, 2018. ISBN 978-954-2912-71-2.
Abstract: Only a decade ago the world was a relatively peaceful place. Of course, there were many conflicts with varying degrees of intensity and confrontations of a different nature, but they were more of a local nature. Globally, the world has accepted that a global power can independently guide world affairs in a way that fits its understanding. In history, events are repeated without be copyed. Sometimes the “actors” are the same, sometimes they are changed, but the main scenario of the “play” remains unchanged. In this sense, human history has witnessed many such attempts, but no one expected the processes of deglobalization
begin to develop so dynamically. At the same time, the creation of multiple centers of influence with relevant integration unions and international bodies,
accompanied by a change in the balance of power at world level does not mean that the same “play” will not be played again. Nevertheless, the changes are in place and, apart from the purely political aspects they have, their impact on the development of economic relations is of utmost importance because, ultimately, the economy is the base on which society is built. It is difficult, even impossible for small countries to independently influence these processes. This is the reason why the conditions need to be carefully assessed. Thus they can find their place, role and importance and preserve their sovereignty and dignity.
Such a thesis may encounter resistance from adherents of one or another center of influence because the lack of impartiality and sometimes strong dependence does not allow an independent assessment of the conditions. This fact would not in itself be of special significance if it did not lead to the inability to make adequate and responsible decisions in which the history of the Bulgarian state has countless examples.
It is a fact the deepening of mutual interdependence at the global level, an essential element of which is the economic interaction between the countries. It is precisely this interaction that becomes the cause of a fierce competitive race. On the one hand, this is because the volume of the world product at a given time is limited and every country therefore strives to attract a larger share of it in the channels of its international trade and production chains. On the other hand, economic interaction is becoming the basis for deepening cooperation, understanding and building strong ties in all areas of international
The growing globalization of industry and trade, which is more and more characterized by a global territorial distribution of supply chains, is increasingly demanding for transport as part of logistics systems. In this respect, the different means of transportation and the macro-framework, and in particular the transport and communication infrastructure, are constantly evolving to meet the increasing demands.
Only with significant qualitative and quantitative changes in these structures is it possible to build and control internationally oriented efficient supply chains.
At present, in Bulgarian political circles, there is an underestimation of the dynamics of global conditions, both politically and economically, and the place and role that our country may have in them. This is why the monograph has demonstrated that building a transnational logistic corridor is a key element of strategic importance as it is the basis for the development of international economic relations, further integration and their transformation into economic advantages.
The study also presents conclusions on the development of environmentally, economically, socially and politically balanced sustainable transport concepts.
The results of this study can be used by authorities involved in developing government policy in the transport sector and by operators to obtain a better assessment of the environment and price formation in transport services and to improve their competitiveness.
Proved in the monograph are the following: it is essential to build transnational logistic corridors as a basis for the development of international economic relations, further integration and their transformation into economic; globalization is a major factor in the development of economic corridors; transnational companies are a major player in international economic relations and a factor for development; transport corridors are the physical basis for building and developing logistics and economic corridors; the economic corridors in Eurasia will be built and short sea shipping in the Black Sea is the regional link between Asia and Europe.
The aim is to analyze the conditions affecting the development of economic corridors in Eurasia and on this basis to determine what is the place and role of Bulgaria in these processes in order to make a proper assessment and make responsible decisions. This objective is achieved by the following research tasks:
- the global strategic conditions affecting the development of the trans-national logistics corridors in Eurasia have been explored;
- the regional conditions in the Black Sea region and Central Asia are addressed;
- the prospects for the development of transnational logistics corridors in Eurasia and the place and role of the short sea shipping concept in the Black Sea as a link between transport systems in Central Asia and Europe;
- what are the national conditions, taking into account the context of the country’s membership in the European Union;
- an analysis of the Eurasian transport corridors was carried out, with particular reference to the links between the respective transport systems.
The theoretical and methodological basis of the study are the positions formulated in the works of foreign and Bulgarian scientists devoted to the scientific and practical problems in the development of economic corridors. The development of the present work is based on the use of inductive, deductive and traductive methods by studying the content of publications, statistical and historical analysis. The comparative analyzes, conclusions and recommendations are based on examples from world practice. A problem-oriented approach has been used to draw lessons that would be useful to strengthen the political dialogue of the Bulgarian government and increase the country’s participation in the development of economic corridors.
Keywords: economic corridors, logistic corridors, transport corridors, intermodal transport, multimodal transport, supply chains, TNC, globalization, de-globalization, short sea shipping
- Prof. PhD Dimitar Dimitrakiev
- Prof. PhD Vania Banabakova
- Prof. PhD Daniela Todorova
ALEXANDROV, Ch. Surveillance Sensors in Vessel Traffic Management and Information Systems. Varna: Nikola Vaptsarov Naval Academy, 2017. ISBN 978-619-7428-00-1.
Abstract: The book represents intensive progress of communication and information technologies and their applications in shipping during the recent years, as well as some research results in the area, carried out in the Department of Electronics, Nikola Vaptsarov Naval Academy. Book’s content represents the technical structure of Bulgarian Vessel Traffic Management and Information System, VTMIS, which had been built up over a number of almost 20 years period and successfully completed thanks to financial support of European Union. Main topics are devoted to subsystems, providing information for building up full picture of the traffic in the area of operation and representing theoretical background, up-to-date status of utilized technologies and technical specifications with evaluations of operating parameters. Topics are worked out by using sufficient and precise mathematical tools and are provided with reference lists. (In Bulgarian)
Keywords: Vessel Traffic Management and Information Systems VTMIS, Radar, Radio navigation, Communications at sea and GMDSS
- Prof. D. Sc. Eng. Assen Nedev
- Assoc. prof. D-r Eng. Ancho Draganov
TSVETKOV, M. Integrated simulation complex for the training of maritime officers on marine radars systems and ARPA. Varna: Nikola Vaptsarov Naval Academy, 2017. ISBN 978-619-7428-12-4.
- Assoc. Prof. D-r Eng. Chavdar Alexandrov
- Assoc. Prof. D-r Eng. Ancho Draganov
DACHEV, Y. Maritime charts. Varna: Steno, 2017. ISBN 978-954-449-910-5.
- Prof. PhD Blagovest Belev – Nikola Vaptsarov Naval Academy, Varna
- Prof. PhD Andrey Andreev – University of Shoumen
STOIANOV, N. Risks and threats to the security of the water transport-transmission system. Varna: Terra Balkanika, 2017. ISBN 978-619-90844-0-3.
Abstract: The topic of the security of the water transport system is determined by the role of maritime transport in the sustainable development of maritime countries and the challenges facing the modern world in relation to threats to maritime security.
The object of scientific research is the security of the water transport system.
The subject of the research is the maritime security policy of the International Maritime Organization and the European Union’s Maritime Security Policy.
The working hypothesis of the study is that on the basis of existing theories, methods and approaches related to IMO maritime security policy and the European Maritime Security Strategy, an architectural framework can be created to serve as a theoretical basis for the creation of a national maritime strategy and a unified national maritime policy.
As a result of the research, the following conclusions can be summarized:
- Knowledge of the existing challenges and threats to maritime security on a global and regional scale is updated.
- Systematized, detailed, refined and executed with specific content are a basic part of the terms used in the Republic of Bulgaria regarding the maritime security.
- Relationship has been analyzed and the causal relationship between the International Maritime Organization’s security policy and its impact on the European Maritime Safety Policy has been identified.
Achieving the goals of the survey can serve as a basis for the creation of a national maritime strategy and a unified state maritime policy.
Keywords: maritime security, piracy, maritime terrorism
- Capt. (N) Assoc. Prof. PhD Nedko Dimitrov
- CDR PhD Valentin Vasilev
KOZHUHAROV, A. Bulgarian Naval Officers Training Abroad (1882-1944). Varna: Terra Balkanika, 2015. ISBN 978-619-90140-6-6.
Abstract: The work analyses primary archive sources referring to Bulgarian cadets and officers education and training at Russian and West European Naval academies from 1882 to 1944. On these grounds the book establishes detailed time frames concerning the education process abroad.
The study focuses on the reasons for sending Bulgarian trainees abroad
and their further contribution for establishing the framework of Bulgarian shipping and naval education system.
Keywords: Imperial Russian Navy, Kronstadt, Brest, Trieste, Bulgarian naval officers, professional training, educational systems.
- Assoc. Prof. Anatolij Prokopiev.
- Assoc. Prof. Petyr Dereliev.
Editor: PhD Vania Koleva.
VICHEVA, P. Collocations in Maritime English as Knowledge Items. Varna: Terra Balkanika, 2015. ISBN 978-819-90140-4-2.
Abstract: Maritime English as part of English for Specialized Purposes has its own particular characteristics and organization. At the core of the characteristics lies the word terminology. Terminology is the subject that deals with naming the concepts transferred into terms. Concepts can be described only by acquiring knowledge about their characteristics and concept naming involves matching these characteristics with the appropriate linguistic forms (terms). The relationship between knowledge and terminology has been pointed out by both information scientists and terminologists.
- Assoc. Prof. Sonia Toncheva
- Assoc. Prof. Neli Vasileva
TONCHEVA, S. The Ganres Used by the Maritime Discourse Community. Varna: Steno, 2005. ISBN 954-449-241-0.